Provider Resources

Close the Gap in Headache Care.

Lifestyle is a crucial part of migraine management. However, we know how challenging it can be to support your migraine patients in making behavioral changes, especially between appointments. This page contains free educational resources to help you close that gap for your patients — all developed in partnership with the Jefferson Headache Center.

We have developed tools that can benefit your patients at any stage of migraine, and are safe to use in conjunction with their migraine medication plan.

Click the tabs below to discover resources for you and your patients.

Press play to learn more

Why lifestyle change?

Certain lifestyle behaviors have been linked to decreased migraine severity and attack frequency, like consistent meal timing, quality sleep, and proper hydration. These and other modifiable lifestyle factors have been shown to further influence the chronicity of migraine. However, patients often encounter multiple barriers in identifying and implementing these changes, especially as they try to also manage migraine. We have designed the following resources to support you and your patients in learning more about the connection between lifestyle and migraine. 

For your patients:
  • Stage of change has consistently been correlated with patient outcomes when implementing new healthy behaviors. Give our “How Ready Are You for Change” handout to help get them started.
For providers:
  • Watch headache specialist Dr. William Young, MD, FAHS, FAAN, FANA explain why lifestyle choices are a crucial part of your patient’s toolkit (see video).
  • Read our Summary on the latest research on lifestyle and migraine.

Our free, downloadable patient handouts cover a range of evidenced-based topics for the non-medication management of migraine and positive lifestyle changes. 

These companion tools are designed to support patients in implementing the lifestyle behaviors that are most applicable for their life with migraine. 

Click here for Spanish Language Handouts

Full List of Patient Handouts:

Lifestyle (watch video)
    • Lifestyle Changes for Migraine Handout

 

Behavior Change (Watch Video)
    • How Ready Are You for Change Handout
    • Prepare for Change Handout
Sleep (Watch Video)
    • Sleep and Migraine Handout

 

Nutrition (Watch Video)
    • The Migraine-Nutrition Connection Handout

 

Hydration (Watch Video)
    • Hydration for Migraine Handout

 

Movement & Exercise (Watch Video)
    • Movement and Migraine Handout

 

    • Therapeutic Self-Care and Migraine Handout

 

Self-Awareness (Watch Video)
    • Self-Awareness for Migraine

 

    • Stress Management for Migraine

 

Connection (Watch Video)
    • Connectedness and Migraine Handout

 

Self-Efficacy (Watch Video)
    • Building Confidence with Migraine Handout

 

Growth (Watch Video)
    • Grow in Your Life with Migraine Handout

 

 

Supplements
    • Supplements and Migraine Handout

View Download

Spanish Language Patient Handouts:

Lifestyle (watch video)
    • Lifestyle Changes for Migraine Handout (Spanish Language)

 

Behavior Change (Watch Video)
    • How Ready Are You for Change Handout (Spanish Language)
    • Prepare for Change Handout (Spanish Language)
Sleep (Watch Video)
    • Sleep and Migraine Handout (Spanish Language)

 

Nutrition (Watch Video)
    • The Migraine-Nutrition Connection Handout (Spanish Language)

 

Hydration (Watch Video)
    • Hydration for Migraine Handout (Spanish Language)

 

Movement & Exercise (Watch Video)
    • Movement and Migraine Handout (Spanish Language)

 

    • Therapeutic Self-Care and Migraine Handout (Spanish Language)

 

Self-Awareness (Watch Video)
    • Self-Awareness for Migraine Handout (Spanish Language)

 

    • Stress Management for Migraine Handout (Spanish Language)

 

Connection (Watch Video)
    • Connectedness and Migraine Handout (Spanish Language)

 

Self-Efficacy (Watch Video)
    • Building Confidence with Migraine Handout (Spanish Language)

 

Growth (Watch Video)
    • Grow in Your Life with Migraine Handout (Spanish Language)

 

 

Supplements
    • Supplements and Migraine Handout (Spanish Language)

View Download

Provider Best Practices

See below for resources to help you support your patients in making lifestyle changes.

AAN Headache Quality Measurement Set

The recent American Academy of Neurology quality measurement in headache update includes the recommendation to assess and counsel patients regarding lifestyle factors associated with attack frequency and migraine severity. Check out our Lifestyle Changes for Migraine and other patient handouts, designed to help you help your patients better address those potentially modifiable risk factors as part of their comprehensive treatment plan.

Knowledge Portal

To help educate your patients, we also offer our free Knowledge Portal, a library of over 90+ accurate, understandable articles, videos, and audios on headache and migraine, which cover a vast range of need-to-know topics and are medically reviewed by our Co-Medical Directors. Click here to view our Knowledge Portal.

Smart Phrase

We know there are many demands on your time. To help you share Ctrl M Health resources with your patients, here is sample text you can use to create your own EMR smart (dot) phrase:

—- Start —-

Today we discussed using the Ctrl M Health app as part of our plan to provide you with comprehensive care for migraine. The app can serve as a complement to your treatment plan. The program provides personalized recommendations for you, including integrated, evidenced-based tools for improving your quality of life with migraine. We encourage you to make use of these tools as a regular part of your health routine in between our visits. 

The Ctrl M Health app offers a 2-week free trial. After that period, subscription fees apply. To download the app, visit: https://ctrlmhealth.com/app/

You may also wish to explore the free Knowledge Portal, where you will find articles and answers to your frequently asked questions about headache and migraine: ctrlmhealth.com/knowledge/

To explore verified nutritional support for migraine, visit the shop at: shop.ctrlmhealth.com/

—- End —-

In developing our programs and mobile app, we drew upon over 150 journal articles and references. We have compiled them below for your review.

Ctrl M Health References

Health Behavior Change

Bond, MR. Psychological issues in cancer and non-cancer conditions. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand., 2001;45(9):1095-1099.

Gardner, B., Lally, P., & Wardle, J. (2012). Making health habitual: the psychology of ‘habit-formation’ and general practice. The British Journal Of General Practice: The Journal Of The Royal College Of General Practitioners, 62(605), 664–666. 

Haddock, G., & Maio, G. R. (Eds.). (2004). Contemporary perspectives on the psychology of attitudes. New York: Psychology Press.

Hardcastle, S. J., Hancox, J., Hattar, A., Maxwell-Smith, C., Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C., & Hagger, M. S. (2015). Motivating the unmotivated: how can health behavior be changed in those unwilling to change? Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 835.

Jensen, MP., Karoly, P. (1991). Control beliefs, coping efforts, and adjustment to chronic pain. J Consult Clin Psychol., 59(3):431-438.

Lally, P., van Jaarsveld, CHM., Potts, HWW., Wardle, J. (2010). How are habits formed: modelling habit formation in the real world. Euro J Soc Psychol., 40:998–1009.

Additional resource: http://psychology.iresearchnet.com/social-psychology/attitudes/attitude-behavior-consistency/

 

Sleep

Sleep Disorders and Headache. American Migraine Foundation.

Biddle, DJ., et al. (2019). Insomnia symptoms and short sleep duration predict trajectory of mental health symptoms. Sleep Medicine, 54,53-61. 

Buysse, DJ. (2014). Sleep health: can we define it? Does it matter? SLEEP, 37(1):9-17.

Calhoun. AH., Ford, S. (2007). Behavioral sleep modification may revert transformed migraine to episodic migraine. Headache, 47(8):1178–1183.

Houle, TT., et al. (2012). Stress and sleep duration predict headache severity in chronic headache sufferers. Pain, 153(12):2432–2440.

Kelman, L., Rains, JC. (2005). Headache and sleep: examination of sleep patterns and complaints in a large clinical sample of migraineurs. Headache, 45(7):904–910.

Koffel, E., Kroenke, K., Bair, M. J., Leverty, D., Polusny, M. A., & Krebs, E. E. (2016). The bidirectional relationship between sleep complaints and pain: Analysis of data from a randomized trial. Health Psychology, 35(1), 41–49.

Moldofsky, H. (2001). Sleep and pain. Sleep Med Rev., 5:385‐396.

Munch, M., Bromundt, V. (2012). Light and chronobiology: implications for health and disease. Dialogues Clin Neurosci, 14(4):448–453.

Ohayon, MM. (2005). Relationship between chronic painful physical condition and insomnia. J Psychiatr Res., 39:151‐159.

Sarabdjitsingh, RA., et al. (2010). Recovery from disrupted ultradian glucocorticoid rhythmicity reveals a dissociation between hormonal and behavioural stress responsiveness. J Neuroendocrinol, 22(8):862–871.

Woldeamanuel, Y.W. & Cowan, RP. (2016). The impact of regular lifestyle behavior in migraine: a prevalence case–referent study. J Neurol, 263:669–676.

Nutrition

 

Nutrition Strategies for Migraine:

Level of Evidence

 

Strategy Well-Supported Promising Practice-Driven
          Self-Discovery
Food Journal  x
          Building Quality
Anti-Inflammatory Diet x
Anti-Inflammatory Fats x
Weight Management x
            Building Balance
Blood Sugar Balance x
Macronutrient Balance x
Gut Microbiome Support x
            Building Consistency
Meal Timing x
Modulating Caffeine x

 

Abu-Salameh, I., Plakht, Y., & Ifergane, G. (2010). Migraine exacerbation during Ramadan fasting. The Journal Of Headache And Pain, 11(6), 513–517.

Antonova M, Wienecke T, Olesen J, Ashina M. (2013). Prostaglandins in migraine: update. Curr Opin Neurol., 26(3):269‐275. 

Aparicio‐Soto, M., Redhu, D., Sánchez‐Hidalgo, M., Fernández‐Bolaños, J. G., Alarcón‐de‐la‐Lastra, C., Worm, M., & Babina, M. (2019). Olive‐Oil‐Derived Polyphenols Effectively Attenuate Inflammatory Responses of Human Keratinocytes by Interfering with the NF‐κB Pathway. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 1900019.

Balan, M., & Locke, M. (2011). Acute exercise activates myocardial nuclear factor kappa B. Cell Stress & Chaperones16(1), 105–111. 

Barbanti P, Fofi L, Aurilia C, Egeo G, Caprio M. (2017). Ketogenic diet in migraine: rationale, findings and perspectives. Neurol Sci., 38(Suppl 1):111-115.

Bigal, ME., Rapoport, AM. (2012). Obesity and chronic daily headache. Curr Pain Headache Rep, 16(1):101–109.

Bond, D. S., Vithiananthan, S., Nash, J. M., Thomas, J. G., & Wing, R. R. (2011). Improvement of migraine headaches in severely obese patients after bariatric surgery. Neurology76(13), 1135–1138. 

Brown, R. (1994). An Introduction to Neuroendocrinology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bunner, AE., Agarwal U., Gonzales, JF., Valente, F., Barnard, ND. (2014). Nutrition intervention for migraine: a randomized crossover trial. J Headache Pain, 15(1):69. Published 2014 Oct 23.

Dalton, K. (1975). Food intake prior to a migraine attack–study of 2,313 spontaneous attacks. Headache, 15(3):188‐193. 

Derry, CJ., Derry, S., Moore, RA. (2012). Caffeine as an analgesic adjuvant for acute pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, (3):CD009281. Published 2012 Mar 14.

De Souza, R. G. M., Gomes, A. C., Navarro, A. M., Cunha, L. C. da, Silva, M. A. C., Junior, F. B., & Mota, J. F. (2019). Baru Almonds Increase the Activity of Glutathione Peroxidase in Overweight and Obese Women: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Nutrients, 11(8), 1750. 

Dexter, J. D., Roberts, J., & Byer, J. A. (1978). The Five Hour Glucose Tolerance Test and Effect of Low Sucrose Diet in Migraine. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain, 18(2), 91–94. 

Di Clemente, L., Coppola, G., Magis, D., et al. (2009). Nitroglycerin sensitises in healthy subjects CNS structures involved in migraine pathophysiology: evidence from a study of nociceptive blink reflexes and visual evoked potentials. Pain, 144(1-2):156‐161. 

Edvinsson, L., Haane, KA., Warfvinge, K., Krause, DN. (2018). CGRP as the target of new migraine therapies—successful translation from bench to clinic. Nat Rev Neurol, 14(6):338.

Feigen LP. (1981). Actions of prostaglandins in peripheral vascular beds. Fed Proc., 40(7):1987‐1990.

Finocchi, C., & Sivori, G. (2012). Food as trigger and aggravating factor of migraine. Neurological Sciences, 33(S1), 77–80. 

Ford, ES., Li, C., Pearson, WS., Zhao, G., Strine, TW., Mokdad, AH. (2018). Body mass index and headaches: findings from a national sample of US adults. Cephalalgia. 28(12):1270‐1276.

Ghandadi, M., & Sahebkar, A. (2017). Curcumin: An Effective Inhibitor of Interleukin-6. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 23(6), 921–931. 

Gomez, I., Foudi, N., Longrois, D., Norel, X. (2013). The role of prostaglandin E2 in human vascular inflammation. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 89(2-3):55‐63.

Greene, J., Hibbard, J. H., Alvarez, C., & Overton, V. (2016). Supporting Patient Behavior Change: Approaches Used by Primary Care Clinicians Whose Patients Have an Increase in Activation Levels. Annals of Family Medicine, 14(2), 148–154.

Gunay, Y., Jamal, M., Capper, A., Eid, A., Heitshusen, D., Samuel, I. (2013). Roux-en-Y gastric bypass achieves substantial resolution of migraine headache in the severely obese: 9-year experience in 81 patients. Surg Obes Relat Dis., 9(1):55‐62. 

Harel, Z., Gascon, G., Riggs, S., Vaz, R., Brown, W., & Exil, G. (2002). Supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the management of recurrent migraines in adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 31(2), 154–161. 

Hartman, TJ., Albert, PS., Zhang Z., Bagshaw, D., Kris-Etherton, PM., Ulbrecht, J., et al. (2009). Consumption of a legume-enriched, low-glycemic index diet is associated with biomarkers of insulin resistance and inflammation among men at risk for colorectal Cancer1. J Nutr, 140(1):60–67

Hashemzadeh, M., Rahimi, A., Zare-Farashbandi, F., Alavi-Naeini, A. M., & Daei, A. (2019). Transtheoretical Model of Health Behavioral Change: A Systematic Review. Iranian Journal Of Nursing And Midwifery Research, 24(2), 83–90. 

Hering-Hanit, R., Gadoth, N. (2003). Caffeine-induced headache in children and adolescents. Cephalalgia. 23(5):332‐335.

Hills, R. D., Jr, Pontefract, B. A., Mishcon, H. R., Black, C. A., Sutton, S. C., & Theberge, C. R. (2019). Gut Microbiome: Profound Implications for Diet and Disease. Nutrients, 11(7), 1613.

Hoshiyama, M., Li, B., Yao, J., Harada, T., Morioka, T., Oite, T. (2003). Effect of high glucose on nitric oxide production and endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein expression in human glomerular endothelial cells. Nephron Exp Nephrol. 95(2):e62‐e68. 

Irwin, M. R., Wang, M., Ribeiro, D., Cho, H. J., Olmstead, R., Breen, E. C., Martinez-Maza, O., & Cole, S. (2008). Sleep loss activates cellular inflammatory signaling. Biological psychiatry64(6), 538–540. 

Jacobs, B., & Dussor, G. (2016). Neurovascular contributions to migraine: Moving beyond vasodilation. Neuroscience338, 130–144.

Jahromi, SR., Abolhassani, M., Meysamie, A, Togha, M. (2013). The effect of body fat mass and fat free mass on migraine headache. Iran J Neurol, 12(1):23–27.

Joseph, S. V., Edirisinghe, I., & Burton-Freeman, B. M. (2014). Berries: Anti-inflammatory Effects in Humans. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 62(18), 3886–3903. 

Kelman, L. (2007). The triggers or precipitants of the acute migraine attack. Cephalalgia. 27:394-402.

Lakkakula, A., Geaghan, J., Zanovec, M., Pierce, S., Tuuri, G. (2010). Repeated taste exposure increases liking for vegetables by low-income elementary school children. Appetite. 55(2):226‐231. 

Lee, M. J., Choi, H. A., Choi, H., & Chung, C. S. (2016). Caffeine discontinuation improves acute migraine treatment: a prospective clinic-based study. the Journal Of Headache And Pain17(1), 71. 

Lee, J., Jo, D.-G., Park, D., Chung, H. Y., & Mattson, M. P. (2014). Adaptive Cellular Stress Pathways as Therapeutic Targets of Dietary Phytochemicals: Focus on the Nervous System. Pharmacological Reviews, 66(3), 815–868. 

Lee, SH., Lee, JJ., Kwon, Y., Kim, JH., Sohn, JH. (2017). Clinical implications of associations between headache and gastrointestinal disorders: a study using the Hallym Smart Clinical Data Warehouse. Front Neurol., 8:526.

Levy, M., Thaiss, C. A., & Elinav, E. (2016). Metabolites: messengers between the microbiota and the immune system. Genes & Development, 30(14), 1589–1597.

 Liang, JF., Wang, SJ. (2014). Hypnic headache: a review of clinical features, therapeutic options and outcomes. Cephalalgia. 34(10):795‐805. 

 Lippi, G., Mattiuzzi, C., Cervellin, G. (2014). C-reactive protein and migraine. Facts or speculations? Clin Chem Lab Med. 52(9):1265‐1272. 

Maldonado-Rojas, W., & Olivero-Verbel, J. (2011). Potential interaction of natural dietary bioactive compounds with COX-2. Journal of Molecular Graphics and Modelling, 30, 157–166.

Mancuso P. The role of adipokines in chronic inflammation. Immunotargets Ther. 2016;5:47-56

Manfield, J.H., Yu, K.K., Efthimiou, E., et al. (2017). Bariatric Surgery or Non-surgical Weight Loss for Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension? A Systematic Review and Comparison of Meta-analyses. OBES SURG 27, 513–521.

Maniyar, F. H., Sprenger, T., Monteith, T., Schankin, C., & Goadsby, P. J. (2013). Brain activations in the premonitory phase of nitroglycerin-triggered migraine attacks. Brain, 137(1), 232–241. 

Bigal, ME., Liberman, JN., Lipton, RB. (2006).  A population study. Neurology, 66(4), 545-550.

Mashhadi, N. S., Ghiasvand, R., Askari, G., Hariri, M., Darvishi, L., & Mofid, M. R. (2013). Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of ginger in health and physical activity: review of current evidence. International journal of preventive medicine, 4(Suppl 1), S36-42.

Neeb, L., Hellen, P., Boehnke, C., Hoffmann, J., Schuh-Hofer, S., Dirnagl, U., & Reuter, U. (2011). IL-1β stimulates COX-2 dependent PGE₂ synthesis and CGRP release in rat trigeminal ganglia cells. PloS one6(3), e17360. 

Parantainen, J., Vapaatalo, H., Hokkanen, E. (1985). Relevance of prostaglandins in migraine. Cephalalgia, 5 Suppl 2:93‐97. 

Pardutz, A., & Schoenen, J. (2010). NSAIDs in the Acute Treatment of Migraine: A Review of Clinical and Experimental Data. Pharmaceuticals (Basel, Switzerland)3(6), 1966–1987. 

Park, JY., Pillinger, MH., Abramson, SB. (2006). Prostaglandin E2 synthesis and secretion: the role of PGE2 synthases. Clin Immunol. 119(3):229‐240. 

Pearce, J. (1971). Insulin induced hypoglycaemia in migraine. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 34(2), 154–156. 

Popko, K., Gorska, E., Stelmaszczyk-Emmel, A., Plywaczewski, R., Stoklosa, A., Gorecka, D., et al. (2010). Proinflammatory cytokines Il-6 and TNF-α and the development of inflammation in obese subjects. Euro J Med Res, 15(Suppl 2):120–122

Pradhan, AA., Bertels, Z., Akerman, S. (2018). Targeted Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors for Migraine. Neurotherapeutics, 15(2):391‐401. 

Ramsden CE, Fauroy KR, Zamora D, et al. Targeted alteration of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids for the treatment of chronic headaches: A randomized trial. Pain, 2013, 154: 2441-2451.

Razeghi Jahromi, S., Ghorbani, Z., Martelletti, P. et al. (2019). Association of diet and headache. J Headache Pain, 20, 106. 

Recober, A., & Goadsby, P. J. (2010). Calcitonin gene-related peptide: A molecular link between obesity and migraine? Drug news & perspectives23(2), 112–117. 

Scher, A., Stewart, W., Ricci, J., Lipton, R. (2003). Factors associated with the onset and remission of chronic daily headache in a population-based study. Pain, 106(1–2):81–89.

Scher, A. I., Stewart, W. F., & Lipton, R. B. (2004). Caffeine as a risk factor for chronic daily headache: A population-based study. Neurology, 63(11), 2022–2027. 

Silberstein, S., Tepper, S., Brandes, J., Diamond, M., Goldstein, J., Winner, P., Venkatraman, S. , Vrijens, F., Malbecq, W., Lines, C., Visser, W. H., Reines, S., Yuen, E. (2004). Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of rofecoxib in the acute treatment of migraine. Neurology, 62 (9) 1552-1557.

Slavin, M., Li, H., Frankenfeld, C. and Cheskin, L.J. (2019). What is Needed for Evidence‐Based Dietary Recommendations for Migraine: A Call to Action for Nutrition and Microbiome Research. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain, 59: 1566-1581. 

Stuehr, DJ. Enzymes of the L-arginine to nitric oxide pathway. (2004). J Nutr. 134(10 Suppl):2748S‐2767S. 

Tai, M. S., Yap, J. F., & Goh, C. B. (2018). Dietary trigger factors of migraine and tension-type headache in a South East Asian country. Journal of Pain Research11, 1255–1261. 

Tietjen, G. E., Khubchandani, J., Herial, N., Palm-Meinders, I. H., Koppen, H., Terwindt, G. M., van Buchem, M. A., Launer, L. J., Ferrari, M. D., & Kruit, M. C. (2018). Migraine and vascular disease biomarkers: A population-based case-control study. cephalalgia : An International Journal Of Headache38(3), 511–518. 

Torelli, P., Evangelista, A., Bini, A., Castellini, P., Lambru, G., Manzoni, GC. (2009). Fasting headache: a review of the literature and new hypotheses. Headache. 2009;49(5):744‐752.

Turner, DP., Smitherman, TA., Penzien, DB., Porter, JA., Martin, VT., Houle, TT. (2014). Nighttime snacking, stress, and migraine activity. J Clin Neurosci., 21(4):638‐643. 

Tzeng, SF., Hsiao, HY., Mak, OT. (2005). Prostaglandins and cyclooxygenases in glial cells during brain inflammation. Curr Drug Targets Inflamm Allergy. 4(3):335‐340. 

Vadell, AKE., Bärebring, L., Hulander, E., Gjertsson, I., Lindqvist, HM., Winkvist, A. (2020). Anti-inflammatory Diet In Rheumatoid Arthritis (ADIRA)-a randomized, controlled crossover trial indicating effects on disease activity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2020;nqaa019. 

Vasquez, A. (2006). Therapeutic Nutrition and Botanical Medicines for the Promotion of Wellness and Alleviation of Pain and Inflammation: A Detailed Review for Integrative Clinicians.

Zhang DG, Amin FM, Guo S, Vestergaard MB, Hougaard A, Ashina M. (2020). Plasma Glucose Levels Increase During Spontaneous Attacks of Migraine With and Without Aura. Headache, 60(4):655‐664. 

 Zhu, L., Ni, H., Chen, R., Chang, L., Shi, H., Qiu, D., … Zhu, D. (2018). Hippocampal nuclear factor kappa B accounts for stress‐induced anxiety behaviors via enhancing neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)‐carboxy‐terminal PDZ ligand of nNOS‐Dexras1 coupling. Journal of Neurochemistry, 146(5), 598–612. 

Hydration

 

American Council for Headache Education (2013, updated). Dehydration: An Avoidable Migraine Trigger.

Blau, JN., Kell, CA., Sperling, JM. (2004). Water-deprivation headache: a new headache with two variants. Headache. 44(1):79-83. 

El-Sharkawy, A. M., Sahota, O., Maughan, R. J., & Lobo, D. N. (2014). The pathophysiology of fluid and electrolyte balance in the older adult surgical patient. Clinical Nutrition, 33(1), 6–13. 

Krause’s Food and the Nutrition Care Process Mahan, K. L. et. al. Elsevier, 2012.

Perrier, E. T., Johnson, E. C., McKenzie, A. L., Ellis, L. A., & Armstrong, L. E. (2016). Urine colour change as an indicator of change in daily water intake: a quantitative analysis. European Journal of Nutrition55(5), 1943–1949. 

Popkin, B. M., D’Anci, K. E., & Rosenberg, I. H. (2010). Water, hydration, and health. Nutrition Reviews68(8), 439–458. 

Shaheen, N. A., Alqahtani, A. A., Assiri, H., Alkhodair, R., & Hussein, M. A. (2018). Public knowledge of dehydration and fluid intake practices: variation by participants’ characteristics. BMC Public Health18(1), 1346. 

Spigt, M. G., Kuijper, E. C., Schayck, C. P., Troost, J., Knipschild, P. G., Linssen, V. M., & Knottnerus, J. A. (2005). Increasing the daily water intake for the prophylactic treatment of headache: a pilot trial. European Journal of Neurology, 12(9), 715-718.

Vivanti, A. P. (2012). Origins for the estimations of water requirements in adults. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 66(12), 1282–1289. 

Zhang, N., Du, S., Zheng, M., et al. (2017). Urine color for assessment of dehydration among college men students in Hebei, China – a cross-sectional study. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 26(5):788-793. 

Additional Resources:

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/153363

https://migraineagain.com/10-signs-of-dehydration/#easy-footnote-bottom-1-43315

Movement

Ali M, Nas FS. Exercise for the management and treatment of cervicogenic headache: a narrative review. MOJ Yoga Physical Ther. 2018;3(5):85-88.

Amin FM, Aristeidou S, Baraldi C, et al. The association between migraine and physical exercise. J Headache Pain, 2018;19(1):83. Published 2018 Sep 10. 

Barber, M., & Pace, A. (2020). Exercise and Migraine Prevention: a Review of the Literature. Current Pain and Headache Reports, 24(8), 1-7.

Blau, J. N., MacGregor, E. A. Migraine and the Neck. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain, 34(2), 88–90.

Elinoff, V., Lynn, S. J., Ochiai, H., & Hallquist, M. (2009). The efficacy of Kiko exercises on the prevention of migraine headaches: a pilot study. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 37(3), 459–470. 

Farris, SG., Thomas, JG., Abrantes, AM., Lipton, RB., Burr, EK., Godley, FA., Roth, JL., Pavlovic, JM., Bond, DS. (2019). Anxiety sensitivity and intentional avoidance of physical activity in women with probable migraine. Cephalalgia, 2019 Oct;39(11):1465-1469.

Lampl, C., Rudolph, M., Deligianni, CI., Mitsikostas, DD. (2015). Neck pain in episodic migraine: premonitory symptom or part of the attack? J Headache Pain. 16(1):566.

La Touche, R., Fernández Pérez, J. J., Proy Acosta, A., González Campodónico, L., Martínez García, S., Adraos Juárez, D., … & Paris‐Alemany, A. (2020). Is aerobic exercise helpful in patients with migraine? A systematic review and meta‐analysis. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 30(6), 965-982.

Lippi, G., Mattiuzzi, C., Sanchis-Gomar, F. (2018). Physical exercise and migraine: for or against?. Ann Transl Med, 6(10):181. 

Machado-Oliveira, L., da Silva Gauto, Y. O., de Santana Neto, F. J., da Silva, M. G., Germano-Soares, A. H., & Diniz, P. R. B. (2020). Effects of different exercise intensities on headache: a systematic review. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 99(5), 390-396.

Oliveira, A., Gringõn, D., Peres, M. (2019).  No Pain, More Gain? Affect and Adherence to Exercise in Migraine Patients: A Prospective Cohort Study. Headache Medicine, 10(20), 43-50. 

Strickland, J. C., & Smith, M. A. (2014). The anxiolytic effects of resistance exercise. Frontiers in psychology, 5, 753. 

Varkey, E., Cider, A., Carlsson, J., & Linde, M. (2011). Exercise as migraine prophylaxis: a randomized study using relaxation and topiramate as controls. Cephalalgia : An International Journal Of Headache, 31(14), 1428–1438.

Additional Resources:

https://health.gov/sites/default/files/2019-09/PAG_Advisory_Committee_Report.pdf

https://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/strength-training-builds-more-than-muscles

https://www.physio-pedia.com/Cervicogenic_Headache

Complementary Movement:

Boroujeni, M. Z., Marandi, S. M., Esfarjani, F., Sattar, M., Shaygannejad, V., & Javanmard, S. H. (2015). Yoga intervention on blood NO in female migraineurs. Advanced Biomedical Research, 4, 259. 

Jahnke, R., Larkey, L., Rogers, C., Etnier, J., & Lin, F. (2010). A comprehensive review of health benefits of qigong and tai chi. American Journal Of Health Promotion: AJHP, 24(6), e1–e25. 

Kisan, R., Sujan, M., Adoor, M., Rao, R., Nalini, A., Kutty, B. M., Chindanda Murthy, B., Raju, T., & Sathyaprabha, T. (2014). Effect of Yoga on migraine: A comprehensive study using clinical profile and cardiac autonomic functions. International Journal of Yoga, 7(2), 126–132.

Anand Kumar, Rohit Bhatia, Gautam Sharma, Dhanlika Dhanlika, Sreenivas Vishnubhatla, Rajesh Kumar Singh, Deepa Dash, Manjari Tripathi, M.V. Padma Srivastava. (2020).  Effect of yoga as add-on therapy in migraine (CONTAIN): A randomized clinical trial. Neurology, May 2020, 94 (21) e2203-e2212.

Olesen, J. (2008). The role of nitric oxide (NO) in migraine, tension-type headache and cluster headache. Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 120(2), 157–171. 

Pal, G. K., Agarwal, A., Karthik, S., Pal, P., & Nanda, N. (2014). Slow yogic breathing through right and left nostril influences sympathovagal balance, heart rate variability, and cardiovascular risks in young adults. North American Journal Of Medical Sciences, 6(3), 145–151. 

Wang, Y. T., Huang, G., Duke, G., & Yang, Y. (2017). Tai Chi, Yoga, and Qigong as Mind-Body Exercises. Evidence-based Complementary And Alternative Medicine: eCAM, 2017, 8763915. 

Additional Resources:

https://www.brainandlife.org/articles/how-yoga-can-help-people-with-traumatic-brain-injury/

https://www.cnn.com/2020/05/06/health/yoga-migraine-relief-study-wellness/index.html

https://www.coventry.ac.uk/primary-news/meditation-and-yoga-can-reverse-dna-reactions-which-cause-stress-new-study-suggests-/

https://headaches.org/2007/10/25/hot-and-cold-packs-showers/

https://www.healthline.com/health/yoga-for-migraines

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/326965#diagnosis

https://migraineagain.com/10-yoga-poses-for-migraine-prevention/

http://www.shen-nong.com/eng/exam/headaches_qigong_practice.html

https://www.yogajournal.com/practice/reclining-twist

https://yogaunioncwc.com/comparison-qi-gong-yoga/

https://wightcaneco.com/5-qigong-exercises-and-their-health-benefits/

Self-Awareness

Bakhshani, NM., Amirani, A., Amirifard, H., Shahrakipoor, M. (2015). The Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction on Perceived Pain Intensity and Quality of Life in Patients With Chronic Headache. Glob J Health Sci, 2015 Aug 6;8(4):142-51.

Bawa, FL., Mercer, SW., Atherton, RJ., Clague, F., Keen, A., Scott, NW., Bond, CM. Does mindfulness improve outcomes in patients with chronic pain? Systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Gen Pract, 2015 Jun;65(635):e387-400.

Borsook, David & Maleki, Nasim & Becerra, Lino & Mcewen, Bruce. (2012). Understanding Migraine through the Lens of Maladaptive Stress Responses: A Model Disease of Allostatic Load. Neuron. 73. 219-34. 

Buse, D. C., & Andrasik, F. (2009). Behavioral medicine for migraine. Neurologic Clinics, 27(2), 445-465.

Cramer, H., Hehlke, M., Vasmer, J., Rampp, T., Anheyer, D., Saha, F. J., … & Dobos, G. (2019). Integrated care for migraine and chronic tension-type headaches: A prospective observational study. Complementary therapies in clinical practice, 36, 1-6.

Dikmen, Pinar Yalinay, Burcu Goksan Yavuz, Elif Ilgaz Aydinlar. (2015). The relationships between migraine, depression, anxiety, stress, and sleep disturbances. Acta Neurologica Belgica, 115.2 (2015): 117-122.

Dindo, L. N., Recober, A., Calarge, C. A., Zimmerman, B. M., Weinrib, A., Marchman, J. N., & Turvey, C. (2019). One-Day Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Compared to Support for Depressed Migraine Patients: a Randomized Clinical Trial. Neurotherapeutics, 1-11.

D’Souza, P. J., Lumley, M. A., Kraft, C. A., & Dooley, J. A. (2008). Relaxation training and written emotional disclosure for tension or migraine headaches: a randomized, controlled trial. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 36(1), 21-32.

Feuille M, Pargament K. Pain, mindfulness, and spirituality: A randomized controlled trial comparing effects of mindfulness and relaxation on pain-related outcomes in migraineurs. Journal of Health Psychology, 20(8):1090-1106.

Gewirtz, A., & Minen, M. (2019). Adherence to behavioral therapy for migraine: knowledge to date, mechanisms for assessing adherence, and methods for improving adherence. Current Pain And Headache Reports, 23(1), 3.

Grazzi, L., Bernstein, C., Raggi, A., Sansone, E., Grignani, E., Searl, M., & Rizzoli, P. (2019). ACT for migraine: Effect of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for high-frequency episodic migraine without aura: Preliminary data of a phase-II, multicentric, randomized, open-label study. Neurological Sciences, 40(1), 191-192.

Grazzi, L., Sansone, E., Raggi, A. et al. Mindfulness and pharmacological prophylaxis after withdrawal from medication overuse in patients with Chronic Migraine: an effectiveness trial with a one-year follow-up. J Headache Pain, 18, 15 (2017). 

Hilton, L., Hempel, S., Ewing, B.A. et al. (2017).  Mindfulness Meditation for Chronic Pain: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Ann. Behav. Med. 51, 199–213.

Holroyd, K. A., & Drew, J. B. (2006, April). Behavioral approaches to the treatment of migraine. In Seminars in Neurology (Vol. 26, No. 02, pp. 199-207). Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc., 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA..

Q., Hou, J. C., & Fang, X. M. (2018). Mindfulness Meditation for Primary Headache Pain: A Meta-Analysis. Chinese Medical Journal, 131(7), 829–838.

Inan, L. E., Akturk, T., & Tanik, N. (2020). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Approach in cases with Migraine Disease. Journal of Cognitive-Behavioral Psychotherapy and Research, 9(1), 67-72.

Kabat-Zinn, J., Lipworth, L., Burney, R. (1985). The clinical use of mindfulness meditation for the self-regulation of chronic pain. J Behav Med, 1985 Jun;8(2):163-90. PMID: 3897551.

Klenofsky, B., Pace, A., Natbony, L. R., & Sheikh, H. U. (2019). Episodic migraine comorbidities: avoiding pitfalls and taking therapeutic opportunities. Current Pain and Headache Reports, 23(1), 1.

Kuruvilla, D. E., Mehta, A., Ravishankar, N., & Cowan, R. (2020). A Patient perspective of Complementary and Integrative Medicine (CIM) for Migraine Treatment: A social media survey.

Maleki, N., Becerra, L., & Borsook, D. (2012). Migraine: maladaptive brain responses to stress. Headache, 52 Suppl 2(Suppl 2), 102–106. 

Mayhami, K., Moradi, O., Dadgar, M., Ezatpour, E E. (2019). Investigation of the educational effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral approach (CBT) coupled with relaxation on migraine pain. Shenakht Journal of Psychology and Psychiatry, 6 (2) :27-37

Nahman-Averbuch, H., Schneider, V. J., Chamberlin, L. A., Van Diest, A. M. K., Peugh, J. L., Lee, G. R., … & King, C. D. (2020). Identification of neural and psychophysical predictors of headache reduction following cognitive behavioral therapy in adolescents with migraine. Pain.

Patel, P. S., & Minen, M. T. (2019). Complementary and Integrative Health Treatments for Migraine. Journal of Neuro-Ophthalmology, 39(3), 360-369.

Pérez-Muñoz, A., Buse, D. C., & Andrasik, F. (2019). Behavioral interventions for migraine. Neurologic Clinics, 37(4), 789-813.

Pressman A, Law H, Stahl R, Scott A, Jacobson A, Dean L, Sudat S, Obillo A, Avins A. Conducting a pilot randomized controlled trial of community-based mindfulness-based stress reduction versus usual care for moderate-to-severe migraine: protocol for the Mindfulness and Migraine Study (M&M). Trials. 2019 May 6;20(1):257. doi: 10.1186/s13063-019-3355-y.

Seng, E. K., Singer, A. B., Metts, C., Grinberg, A. S., Patel, Z. S., Marzouk, M., … & Buse, D. C. (2019). Does Mindfulness‐Based Cognitive Therapy for Migraine Reduce Migraine‐Related Disability in People with Episodic and Chronic Migraine? A Phase 2b Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain, 59(9), 1448-1467.

Sorbi, M., & Tellegen, B. (1986). Differential Effects of Training in Relaxation and Stress‐Coping in Patients with Migraine. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain, 26(9), 473-481.

Turner, J. A., & Chapman, C. R. (1982). Psychological interventions for chronic pain: A critical review. I. Relaxation training and biofeedback. Pain, 12(1), 1-21.

Wachholtz, A., Vohra, R., & Metzger, A. (2019). A reanalysis of a randomized trial on meditation for migraine headaches: Distraction is not enough but meditation takes time. Complementary therapies in medicine, 46, 136-143.

Wells RE, Burch R, Paulsen RH, Wayne PM, Houle TT, Loder E. (2014). Meditation for migraines: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Headache. 2014 Oct;54(9):1484-95.

Wells, R. E., Seng, E. K., Edwards, R. R., Victorson, D. E., Pierce, C. R., Rosenberg, L., … & Schuman-Olivier, Z. (2020). Mindfulness in migraine: A narrative review. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 20(3), 207-225.

Additional Resources:

https://americanmigrainefoundation.org/resource-library/spotlight-treating-migraine-meditation/

https://www.mindful.org/meditators-under-the-microscope/

https://positivepsychology.com/emotion-regulation-worksheets-strategies-dbt-skills/ 

https://www.headspace.com/blog/2017/05/11/ease-migraines/ (Summarizes recent research articles)

https://americanmigrainefoundation.org/resource-library/stress-migraine/

https://www.tarabrach.com/working-pain-mindfulness/

Connectedness

Arnstein, P., Vidal, M., Wells-Federman, C., Morgan, B., & Caudill, M. (2002). From chronic pain patient to peer: Benefits and risks of volunteering. Pain Management Nursing, 3(3), 94-103.

Baigi, K & Stewart, W.F. (2015). Headache and migraine: a leading cause of absenteeism. Hand Clin Neuro, 131, 447-463

Boyle, PA., Buchman, AS., Bennett, DA. (2010). Purpose in life is associated with a reduced risk of incident disability among community-dwelling older persons. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry, 18:1093–1102.

Cohen, R., Bavishi, C., Rozanski, A. (2016). Purpose in life and its relationship to all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events: A meta-analysis. Psychosom Med, 78:122–133.

Ginsburg, K.R. (2007). The Importance of Play in Promoting Healthy Child Development and Maintaining Strong Parent-Child Bonds. Pediatrics, 119 (1) 182-191.

Hooker, S. A., & Masters, K. S. (2016). Purpose in life is associated with physical activity measured by accelerometer. Journal of Health Psychology, 21, 962-971. 

Hooker, S. A., Masters, K. S., & Park, C. L. (2017, July 6). A meaningful life is a healthy life: a conceptual model linking meaning and meaning salience to health. Review of General Psychology.

House, JS., Landis, Kr, Umberson, D. (1988). Social relationships and health. Science, 29,  540-545.

Kim, ES., Strecher, VJ., Ryff, CD. (2014). Purpose in life and use of preventive health care services. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 111:16331–16336.

Kok & Fredrickson. (2010). Upward spirals of the heart: Autonomic flexibility, as indexed by vagal tone, reciprocally and prospectively predicts positive emotions and social connectedness. Biological Psychology, 85(3), 432-436.

Magnuson, C. D., & Barnett, L. A. (2013). The playful advantage: How playfulness enhances coping with stress. Leisure Sciences, 35(2), 129-144.

Martelletti, P., Schwedt, T.J., Lanteri-Minet, M. et al. (2018). My Migraine Voice survey: a global study of disease burden among individuals with migraine for whom preventive treatments have failed. J Headache Pain, 19, 115. 

McQuoid, J. (2017). Finding joy in poor health: The leisure-scapes of chronic illness. Social Science & Medicine (1982), 183, 88–96. 

Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. Convention on the Rights of the Child. General Assembly Resolution 44/25 of 20 November 1989.

Renjith, V., Pai, M. S., Castelino, F., Pai, A., & George, A. (2016). Clinical profile and functional disability of patients with migraine. Journal Of Neurosciences In Rural Practice, 7(2), 250–256. 

Tzabazis, A., Kori, S., Mechanic, J., Miller, J., Pascual, C., Manering, N., Carson, D., Klukinov, M., Spierings, E., Jacobs, D., Cuellar, J., Frey, W.H., II, Hanson, L., Angst, M. and Yeomans, D.C. (2017), Oxytocin and Migraine Headache. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain, 57: 64-75. 

Additional Resources:

https://www.migrainetrust.org/concern-about-high-numbers-of-people-left-isolated-because-of-migraine/

https://migraine.com/living-migraine/pain-with-a-purpose/

Self-Efficacy

Balapour, A., Reychav, I., Sabherwal, R., & Azuri, J. (2019). Mobile technology identity and self-efficacy: Implications for the adoption of clinically supported mobile health apps. International Journal of Information Management, 49, 58-68.

Bandura, A. (1994). Self‐efficacy. John Wiley & Sons, Inc..

Bandura, A. (2008). An agentic perspective on positive psychology. Positive psychology: Exploring the best in people, 1, 167-196.

Cramer, H., Hehlke, M., Vasmer, J., Rampp, T., Anheyer, D., Saha, F. J., … & Dobos, G. (2019). Integrated care for migraine and chronic tension-type headaches: A prospective observational study. Complementary Therapies In Clinical Practice, 36, 1-6.

Donisi, V., Mazzi, M. A., Gandolfi, M., Deledda, G., Marchioretto, F., Battista, S., … & Smania, N. (2020). Exploring Emotional Distress, Psychological Traits and Attitudes in Patients with Chronic Migraine Undergoing OnabotulinumtoxinA Prophylaxis versus Withdrawal Treatment. Toxins, 12(9), 577.

O’Leary, A. (1985). Self-efficacy and health. Behaviour Research And Therapy, 23(4), 437-451.

O’Leary, A. (1992). Self-efficacy and health: Behavioral and stress-physiological mediation. Cognitive Therapy And Research, 16(2), 229-245.

Peters, M., Potter, C.M., Kelly, L. et al. Self-efficacy and health-related quality of life: a cross-sectional study of primary care patients with multi-morbidity. Health Qual Life Outcomes, 17, 37 (2019).

RGN, A. H., & RGN, H. E. W. (2002). Role of self‐efficacy and behaviour change. International Journal Of Nursing Practice, 8(2), 106-115.

Seng, H. & Holroyd, K. Dynamics of Changes in Self-Efficacy and Locus of Control Expectancies in the Behavioral and Drug Treatment of Severe Migraine. Annals Of Behavioral Medicine. 2010;40(3):235-247.

Short, A. L. (2019). Enhancing migraine self-efficacy and reducing disability through a self-management program. Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

Short, A. L. (2019). Impact of Self-Management on Disability and Self-Efficacy in Adults with Chronic Migraine (Doctoral dissertation, University of Missouri–Kansas City).

Strecher, V. J., McEvoy DeVellis, B., Becker, M. H., & Rosenstock, I. M. (1986). The role of self-efficacy in achieving health behavior change. Health Education Quarterly, 13(1), 73-92.

Willis, E. (2016). Patients’ self-efficacy within online health communities: facilitating chronic disease self-management behaviors through peer education. Health Communication, 31(3), 299-307.

Woldeamanuel, Y. W., Sanjanwala, B. M., Peretz, A. M., & Cowan, R. P. (2020). exploring natural clusters of chronic Migraine phenotypes: A cross-Sectional clinical Study. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 1-7.

Growth

Darnall, BD., Sturgeon, JA., Hah, JM., Kao, MC., Mackey, SC. ‘From Catastrophizing to Recovery’: A pilot study of a single-session treatment for pain catastrophizing. J Pain Research, 2014; (7):219-226. PMID: 24851056.

Fish, RA., Hogan, MJ., Morrison, TG., Stewart, I., McGuire, BE. (2013). Willing And Able: A Closer Look At Pain Willingness and Activity Engagement on the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ-8). J Pain, 2013 Mar;14(3):233-45.

S.C. Hayes, K.D. Strosahl, K.G. Wilson. (2012). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: The process and practice of mindful change. (2nd ed.), Guilford Press, New York.

S.C. Hayes, M. Villatte, M. Levin, M. Hildebrandt. Open, aware, and active: Contextual approaches as an emerging trend in the behavioral and cognitive therapies. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 7 (2011), pp. 141-168

Jiang Y, Oathes DJ, Hush J, Darnall BD, Charvat M, Mackey S, Etkin A. (2016). Perturbed Amygdalar Connectivity with the Central Executive and Default Mode Networks in Chronic Pain. PAIN, 2016 Sep;157(9):1970-8.

Lillis, J., Thomas, JG., Lipton, RB., et al. The association of changes in pain acceptance and headache-related disability. Ann Behav Med, 2018.

Lillis, J., Thomas, JG., Seng, EK., et al. (2017). Importance of pain acceptance in relation to headache disability and pain interference in women with migraine and overweight/obesity. Headache, 57:709-718.

McCracken, L.M., Gutiérrez-Martínez, O. (2011). Processes of change in psychological flexibility in an interdisciplinary group-based treatment for chronic pain based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 49 (2011), pp. 267-274

Seminowicz, DA., Shpaner, M., Keaser, ML., Krauthamer, MG., Mantegna, J., Dumas, JA., Newhouse, PA., Filippi, C., Keefe, FJ., Naylor, MR. (2013). Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Increases Prefrontal Cortex Gray Matter in Patients With Chronic Pain. J Pain. 2013 Dec; 14(12):1573-84.

Vowles, K.E., McCracken, L.M. (2018). Acceptance and values-based action in chronic pain: A study of treatment effectiveness and process. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76 (2008), pp. 397-40.

Vowles, K.E., McCracken, L.M., O’Brien, J.Z. (2011). Acceptance and values-based action in chronic pain: A three-year follow-up analysis of treatment effectiveness and process. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 49, pp. 748-755.

Vowles, K.E., Sowden, G., Hickman, J., Ashworth, J. (2019). An analysis of within-treatment change trajectories in valued activity in relation to treatment outcomes following interdisciplinary Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for adults with chronic pain. Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 115, pp. 46-54.

Vowles, K.E, Witkiewitz, K., Sowden, G., Ashworth, J. (2014). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for chronic pain: Evidence of mediation and clinically significant change following an abbreviated interdisciplinary program of rehabilitation. The Journal of Pain, 15, pp. 101-113.